Monday, January 20, 2020

Andrew Jackson Essay -- Biography Biographies

Andrew Jackson â€Å"I cannot be intimidated from doing that which my judgment and conscience tell me is right by any earthly power.† This quote by Jackson underlies the fact the he was a selfish, tyrannical ruler. He did not make decisions based on the interests of the whole nation but on his own personal benefit, in search of self- achievement. Although he was portrayed or possibly manipulated the citizens to believe that he was a president for the common man, that was simply not the way he acted. As president, he purposely ignored the power of the Judicial branch to judge laws, and strengthened the power of the Executive branch above the limits in the Constitution. He was also said to be rude and uneducated, which might have led to the reasons why he was such a power hungry tyrant; but before one makes this harsh judgment they must first realize the type of life that Andrew Jackson lived. It almost certainly was the main reason why his thought process was so different from the regular wealthy, educated earlier presidents. The third child of Irish immigrants, he joined the Army when he was only thirteen years old. Although he was young he had already developed hatred towards the British, because his oldest brother was killed fighting in the Revolution. Even though Jackson was an exceptional soldier, both him and his middle brother were captured by British troops. After their mother pleaded for their release, the boys were set free, but due to the poor living conditions of the army camp, Jackson’s family was overcome by the smallpox disease. Leaving him all alone in life. This traumatic time in his life could have been the start of all his psychological problems. It seems that trouble almost always found Jackson. After being a lawyer for only a few years, an argument with another lawyer in the town led to an insult. Eventually Jackson challenged the man to a duel. Things did not look good for Jackson's opponent because Jackson was a notoriously good shot, but at the last minute Jackson offered his enemy some bacon and a joke, and they laughed together. This shows Jackson had the power to manipulate people. In just a few years of law Jackson, now eighteen met his soon to be wife, Rachel Robards. There was a small problem though†¦Rachel was married. But Jackson being the terrifying man that he was, played with a huge knife during the divorce trial; this p... ...er as president by exceeding his limits and allowing his personal happiness and emotions influence his decisions that may have affected him positively but affected the rest of the United States in a negative way; which was unbelievably selfish. He left the nation with confusion and failures instead of contributing to it, achievements. Jackson once said, â€Å"I know what I am fit for. I can command a body of men in a rough way; but I am not fit to be President.† I do not think he realized how right he was. Bibliography 1. Cayton, Andrew, Perry, Elisabeth I. and Allan M. Winkler. American Pathways to the Present. Needham: Prentice Hall, 1995 2. Kunhardt, Phillip B, Phillip III and Paul. â€Å"Andrew Jackson the 7th president.† The American President. (April 9, 2000): Online. Internet. May 2, 2001 3. Jackson, Andrew. â€Å"First Inaugural Address.† Inaugural addresses of the Presidents of the United States. (1989): p.3 4. Jackson, Andrew. â€Å"Second Inaugural Address.† Inaugural addresses of the Presidents of the United States. (1989): p.2 5. Zinn, Howard. †As Long as the Grass Grows or Water Runs † A Peoples History of the United States: 1492 to Present. New York City: Harper Collins, 1999

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Max Weber: A Short Biography Essay

Being a man with great aspirations, Max Weber’s life was filled with complexities and complications. Therefore, it is worthy of one’s time to explore the reasons of his success, a revolutionary thinker of the 19th century whose theories still remained as the subjects of interest among academics of the new millennium. In this paper, we shall explore on his life, followed by what influenced and motivated Weber to achieve the milestone of his life: scientific management theories. Lastly, we shall critique on the relevance of his theories in modern management. Biography Born in Erfurt, Thuringia, on 21st April 1864, Max Weber was the eldest son of Max Weber Senior and Hellen Fallenstein Weber. Suffering from meningitis at the age of four, Max Weber adopted reading as his past time which developed his academic strength at a young age (Secher 1980). Max Weber studied at the University of Heidelberg in the year 1882, specializing in the subject of Law. However, his education was disrupted while volunteering for military training as an Officer. In 1884, he resumed his education and graduated in 1890 (Secher 1980). He took up an offer at Freiburg University as an Economic Professor in 1894, a year after his marriage with Marianne Schniger, the grand niece of Max Weber, Senior. Ironically, Weber was haunted by a long term psychiatric breakdown and withdrew from work during the peak of his career as in 1897(Gerth & Mill 1982). Although psychologically disturbed, Weber inherited a vast amount of wealth from his deceased father (Secher 1980). The monetary gains enabled Weber to recuperate from his conditions along with the time and space to develop one of his academic masterpiece, â€Å"The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism† in 1904, which contested on the relevance of capitalism in the absence of spiritual belief (Gerth & Mill 1982). Max Weber died of pneumonia in Munich, on 14 June, 1904. However, he kept the world in awe with the introduction of Bureaucracy. A term which was quoted from his work â€Å"Economy and Society† published by Marianne in 1922; which advocated logical and scientific research methodology known as ‘rationalisation’ (Casteel 2009). Bureaucracy was originated from his skeletal invention of a system of management hierarchy while institutionalising a series of hospitals during World War I, of which; in hope to remedy the inequality of hereditary su ccession and the abused of authority within the German empire (Gerth & Mill 1982). Influences: Political and Social Factors Hegelian philosophy had been the German paradigm for centuries, originated from Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel who advocated that Nations could only be prosperous when the state, the civil society and its citizens are managed with strong moral principles (Pippin, Hoffe & Walker 2004). Despite the grand notion, the Hegelian society became a system of corruption and abused, under the governance of the aristocrats. Defunct and degenerative, its relevance was threatened in the 19th century by the evolution of socialism. Unlike the Hegelian society, the mission of the modern socialism is to serve beyond self-interest, while promoting its non-affiliation between a society and its state; which resonated with the oppressed peasants and middle-classes of Germany (Steinmetz 1993). The problem was further intensified by the ruling of Kaiser William ll, whose political interests polarized from Bismarck’s political philosophy which has served as a political stabiliser in Germany (Burbank & Cooper 2010). During his reign, the Kaiser had developed his policies through public image and popular opinion of the Germans. Unfortunately, the approach proved to be unwise, given the autocratic nature of Kaiser William the II, policy making became a game of propaganda to glorify him along with the riddance of any negative publicity or criticism directed at the imperial family (Kohut 1991). Inspired by modern socialism and disappointed with the Kaiser’s and nobilities’ myopic view on politics, Max Weber began to question on the effectiveness of hereditary succession in political power versus meritocracy. In association with his first hand experienced on bureaucracy, Weber began to infuse it with the theory of Charismatic Leadership; where visionaries should be appointed as leaders and serve the nation, with an alteration to the original concept: that leaders should be elected based on merits and not chosen by birth (Wren & Bedian 2009). Economics Factors In the late 19th century, industralisation began to take flight across the western part of the world; however European industrialising nations failed to capture the economic advantages brought about by machinisation (More 2000). France was an exception who experienced spurring growth at the point of time in conjunction with the United State of America (USA). An economist by profession, Max Weber observed that the theory of capitalism and free competitions advocated by Adam Smith was the key for the two nations’ success (Gerth & Mill 1982). In 1904, Max Weber visited the USA on a mission to understand the true essence of capitalism, and noticed that Americans relied excessively on the convenience of technologies for profit generation; that moral ethics began to dissipate in the society (Gerth & Mill 1982). It was the fear of the dissipation which triggered Weber to theorise â€Å"The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism† to address the underlying moral hazards b rought about by technologies, in the absence of spiritual faith (Wren & Bedian 2009). Intellectual Factors John Calvin’s philosophy for Protestant reformation had been one of the rare ideologies which Max Weber adopted in his publications. The underlying reason for Weber to adopt Calvinism; which promotes economic growth and the specialization of labour under the context of the Protestant teachings (Wren & Bedian 2009), was associated with Max Weber’s mother, Hellen Fallenstein Weber. Being a strong proponent on humanitarian issues and the faith of a Protestant, Hellen had been the mentor of Weber in issues related to liberalism and spirituality (Gerth & Mills 1982). Hence, Weber’s choice of religious philosophy and his publication of â€Å"The Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism† can be seen as a form of tribute to Hellen, in recognition for the undying care and love for her eldest son. Any educated German of the 19th Century would have read the two most important works of the century: â€Å"Communist Manifesto† and â€Å"Capital† writ ten by Karl Marx. In summary, what Karl Marx was trying to advocate is the forsaking of self-interest among entrepreneurs and workers in their quest for monetary profits, instead both parties should collaborate as a collective unit in achieving communal benefits where a man’s gain will not be another man’s loss (Patterson 2009). During the period where destitute and suffering prevails, the Utopian theory of Marxism were alluring to the masses; including Weber. However, given his critical nature, Weber discovered the fundamental flaws of generalisation in Marxist’s theories; the absence of actual steps to achieve the desired outcome. With the intention to prove the functionality of Karl Marx’s theory, Weber began to formulate concrete steps to identify individuals’ motivations at work and suggestions on how to improve the societal well being (ed. Wiley 1987) which are reflected on his publication of â€Å"Economy and Society† Relevance to Management Today In the 21st century, bureaucracy has become the corporate culture of large organisations. The system has been a darling in the business arena due to the ease of its implementation, which readily provides a hierarchical framework for governance. Albeit its popularity, formal communication has always been a problem associated with bureaucracy (Wallace 1998). According to Welch (2005, p. 115), ‘hierarchies tend to make little generals out of perfectly normal people who find themselves in organisations that respond only to rank’. However, the underlying problem of bureaucracy is never with the theory itself, but rather the failure of modern managers to rationalise that the system are built upon human relationship. In order to resolve the existing problem, one have to understand that business management is not solely about delegating task and supervision of the employees under a stipulated framework. Instead, success is greatly dependent on ‘who manages and motivates’ the employees (Drucker 2006, p. 56). With reference to Drucker (2006, p. 60), ‘Employees may be our greatest liability, but people are our greatest opportunity.’ The ideology was well adopted by Anita and Gordon Roddick of â€Å"The Body Shop†, who had successfully unleashed the potential of their workers; with the creation of a strong sense of belonging and camaraderie; resulted from the company strong mission and values which focuses on human relations (Tomer 1999). Therefore, one could contest that the success of a manager, are associated with his or her foresight to set visions and missions. Followed by the ability to garner support from the worker and lastly to motivated them in achieving the objectives. In relation to Max Weber’s theory, the idea is what we known as charismatic leadership. Although charismatic leadership has been the ideal form of management style, researchers of organisational behaviours have noticed that it may not be the best approach for adoption. The reason for such an argument is that charismatic leaders are rare gems within the labour market. In order to resolve the issue, a modified version of charismatic leadership known as transformational leadership was introduced as the new frontier. Unlike charismatic leadership, transformational leadership is a set theory which focuses on how different leaders lead and inspire (Mcshane and Travagoline 2007), which are widely used to developed business leaders of tomorrow. Conclusion In retrospect, Max Weber’s penetrative ability to analyse human behaviours, is the reason for his theories to remain highly relevant and widely adopted by modern managers of today. However, as discussed earlier, the theories must not be seen as separate and independent entity. Instead, managers must first understand the nature of Weber’s theories in relation to their respective organisations. Followed by the need to anticipate and rationalise the possible problems that might arise from the application. Only then, may the managers tailor a set of solutions in accordance to the existing need and requirements of the organisations. Reference List Burbank, J & Cooper, F 2010, Empires in World History: Power and the Politics of Difference, Princeton University Press, New Jersey. Casteel, P.D 2009, ‘Weber and rationalization’, Research Starters Sociology, pp. 1-5. Drucker, PF 2006, Classic Drucker, Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation, Massachusetts. Gerth, HH & Mills, CW 1982, From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall Kohut, TA 1991, Wilhelm II and the Germans: A Study in Leadership, Oxford University Press, New York, viewed on 10 February 2011, Marx, K 1970, German Ideology, The Electric Book Company Ltd, London, viewed 9 February 2011, McShane, S & Travagoline, T 2007, Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim, McGraw Hill Australia Pty

Saturday, January 4, 2020

What is the nature and importance of decision-making in investment - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 812 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Cause and effect essay Did you like this example? I agree that right decision in investment is the first step to success and vice versa. Very important if decision-making process rely on scientific methodology of thinking and analysis to invest specific resources for certain period of time with considering of risks and uncertainty, and also important form the point of view that to set approaches to achieve these objectives, where the success in these tasks are limited by how much decision-makers are follow scientific method to collect information needed to take a decision, important also because it gives opportunity to evaluate expected revenue from all proposed investment options, and to select the appropriate investment that comply with objectives of organization and to enable decision-makers the opportunity to chose from well studied selections of investments. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "What is the nature and importance of decision-making in investment?" essay for you Create order Its important also because it consider for the concept of investment choices and chances, qualification and experience, convenient (that to chose the right and suitable investment), and to aware for diversify the investment risks, all these determinants makes the right decision in investment is a master key of success, because it is very easy to decide of investment but if is it the right one? Principles of investment decision: The most convenient strategy of investment that one consider basically on priority of investors according to their view about business which usually affected by many factors as profitability which determine by rate of return, and liquidity and certainty that rely on how much business resist against risks. But decision-making process should also consider for investment determinants: Interest rate: with its indirect relation with investment according to economic concepts on investment (opportunity cost) Capital marginal efficiency: represent the marginal productivity of invested capital and also defined by return on invested capital. Scientific and technological development: what huge development in technology is offers new investment opportunity and assist the existed one with pivotal facilities on communication and software, since computer and internet be as revolution in business. Risk rate: when we classified investors for three categories, as risk avoiders, risk seekers, and those in between the two categories. Economic and political settlement on investment climate: the clear example is Iraq today compare to Iraq before first Gulf war 1991. Others factors: society awareness with importance of save and investment with attainability to active financial market. The importance of trade-offs between investment projects To use of scarce resources should follow a very proper and rational decision of how to invest these resources with lowest wastes possible, that by use of all means of comparative advantages through scientific approach to search for appropriate investment that able to ably, then to prepare the scheme/s bases by studying capital required, costs estimation, size, location, technologies needed, expected demand etc. Trade-offs between investments choices as fateful decision must based on comprehensive and very precise steps and should consider for all pros and cons of evaluation measurements, and use the best appraisal standards between investment choices. Investment appraisal methods These appraisal methods are categorized in two groups, the first one is the un deducted profitability standards in certain conditions, first one is the accounting rate of return ARP, with no consideration for tax and depreciation this method give feasibility of investment by compare the result of ARP and market interest rate, investment can be acceptable and feasible when ARP is bigger than Interest rate, second is payback period PP, as short as period to return capital of investment as investment is more feasible, period of return calculated by divide primary investment costs by annual net cash flow, this method is widely used worldwide as all information required to run is available and also because this method is more appropriate for investment in fluctuated conditions with high levels of uncertainty, this method also criticized as it neglect the profits after return of capital because it focused only on period that investment could return the capital, neglects the time value of m oney when it is not deal with time of cash flow. Deducted profitability standards, as Net present value NPV, the method characterized as logic and precise added to its consideration to deduct cash flow in order to determine the present value, this method uses in international financial organization as appraisal to evaluate investment, the method criticized as it consider only for achieved return and doesnt consider for the capital amount invested to create that returns, the last method is the internal rate of return IRR, this method still adopted by international monetary fund, world bank to evaluate investment and to give loans, the standard of this methods based on rate of discount that when in flow of cash is equal to out-flow of cash, which means the discount that value investment to zero, the method also criticized as the expected cash flow according to the IRR invested usually with the same discount price, the matter is not logic in grand investment where high interest rates usually adopted.

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Benefits Of Ableism Social Costs Incurred By Disability

Taylar Vajda PG 410 Professor Haltom 11 November 2015 The Advantages of Ableism: Social Costs Incurred by Disability (First Rough Draft) Introduction To the average American, the notion that structural inequity within US government creates disadvantages for those in marginalized groups comes as no surprise. Citizens generally acknowledge race, gender, and class as key determinants in one’s social standing. However, what is often overlooked are the structural benefits of being abled within the US- both physically and developmentally. The disabled population starts at a disadvantage from the onset of disability onward, regardless of class. However, being of a higher socioeconomic status creates an excess of privilege not typically witnessed within low income communities. Despite a variety of federal programs implemented, we’ve yet been able to effectively care for the disabled population within low income communities. While public policy attempts to provide services to keep this population employed, healthy and safe it is (typically) unsuccessful. The social costs incurred by disability are fundamentally abetted by st ructural inequity in the American political system. Literature Review Before we get too involved in the midst of this paper however, it should first be made clear what is meant by the term â€Å"disability.† According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health from the World Health Organization (WHO) the medical and social

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Business Ethics Corporate Social Responsibility Essay

Seydina M. Fall E-Business Ethics A corporation must try to avoid egregious negative externalities, must actively promote corporate social responsibility (CSR), and must engage in philanthropy. Let’s take the example of the mining industry, in which 75% of mining companies (diamonds, copper, uranium, cobalt, etc.) are listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange1. For Canada, mining is a source of economic prosperity that brings along with it some risks. To maintain their competitive advantage, it is crucial for Canadian firms involved in mining to invest in programs that bring about long term prosperity for Canada as well as the populations in countries where the natural resources are extracted. One way that CSR is linked to competitive advantage is that it allows firms to anticipate potential negative changes in the firm’s external environment. For example, global capital markets adversely reacting to a Canadian mining firm’s exploitation of workers in the Congo, or increased pressure from sophisticate d Non-Governmental Organizations using the media, or boycott campaigns. In this paper, I will be arguing that CSR falls within the category of competitive strategy specifically smart risk management and cost minimization. CSR helps create win-win situations that make good business sense. It is not an act of theft from shareholders. Instead, I believe that CSR investments should be analyzed within the context of a firm’s (or a country’s) competitive strategy rather than businessShow MoreRelatedBusiness Ethics And Corporate Social Responsibility Essay1382 Words   |  6 PagesSOLUTION Business Ethics Business ethics are moral principles that guide the way a business behaves. The same principles that determine an individual’s actions also apply to business. Acting in an ethical way involves distinguishing between â€Å"right† and â€Å"wrong† and then making the â€Å"right† choice. It is relatively easy to identify unethical business practices. For example, companies should not use child labor. They should not unlawfully use copyrighted materials and processes. They should not engageRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility And Business Ethics8391 Words   |  34 Pages CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND BUSINESS ETHICS Final Project Report for Legal Aspects of Management Submitted To Prof. Dr. D.S. Sengar Professor, IIM Lucknow Submitted By Group 9 Abhinav Bansal, PGP31186 Chheda Adarsh Jayesh, PGP31199 Manideep Akarapu, PGP31213 Ritika Srivastava, PGP31226 Surbhi Aggarwal, PGP31239 â€Æ' Table of Contents Executive Summary 3 Acknowledgement 4 Business Ethics 5 Corporate Social Responsibilty 7 CSR Law 7 Crisis Management CSR 10 Read MoreBusiness Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility756 Words   |  4 PagesBusiness Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility April Duhon DeVry University The United States has several laws that are intended to further fair, balanced, and competitive business practices. Do you think that such laws are effective? If so, why? If not, why not? The effectiveness of the laws that the United States have that are intended to further fair, balanced, and competitive business practices depends on how ethical a business is. Below I will explain why I do not believe theseRead MoreBusiness Ethics And Corporate Social Responsibility1502 Words   |  7 Pages Nowadays, a business wants to exist and grow in a society, which business ethics and corporate social responsibility are sensitive and crucial objectives, the business should do what is right. Many people agree that business does not exist beyond society, it is a citizenship in the society. Therefore, business has to have many certain obligations and social responsibility. It generally means business have to do something good for the community, making social contribution, and using effectivelyRead MoreBusiness Ethics And Corporate Social Responsibility1512 Words   |  7 PagesSocial Responsibility ITC Ltd has worked exremly hard to start several procedures that have led to compliance of the standards of social responsibility. ITC’s dealings within the tobacco industry have contributed to the increase in company revenues and the company has worked towards following the triple bottom line and giving back to society. Most, businesses pay little attention to their social responsibilities and make it part of their overall strategy, instead they concentrate more on financialRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility : Business Ethics1964 Words   |  8 Pagesfrom the variety of companies that they have the option to endorse. A business can spend millions of dollars on advertising, researching, sampling and surveying customers all of which can be undone by a mistake that ruins their reputation. Corporate social responsibility is a term that has its origins in the 1950s. It refers to â€Å"situations where the firm goes beyond compliance and engages in actions that appear to fu rther some social good, beyond the interests of the firm and that which is required byRead MoreCorporate, Social Responsibility And Business Ethics1958 Words   |  8 PagesCONCEPTS applied by the organization CAT (based on 3 units-communication skills, ethics and behaviour, goal settings) We did some research online and decided to choose CATERPILLAR as our subject. Its performance is used as an indication to figure out world’s economy today. This is a six sigma company and follows all the quality standards and all the business process discussed in the text book. Thus we have applied our concepts and applications based on the work done by Caterpillar Inc. It is anRead MoreBusiness Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility Essay722 Words   |  3 PagesEthics are a collection of principles of right conduct that shape the decisions people or organizations make. In a market economy, a business put all possible effort in its own best interest in order to make the best profit. In other hand, businesses are involved each other in that process. It’s ethical in business to do the best possible for your own business without harm the interests or profits to other businesses involved. Ethical behavior is what all carrier people should have in all businessesRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility : A Business Ethics Stance Essay897 Words   |  4 PagesCorporate Social Responsibility From a business ethics stance â€Å"corporate social responsibility† (Velazquez, 2007, pp. 23), refers to the social interest an organization manifest in the environment it operates. SoftMagic has not seized opportunities from corporate social responsibility. In the U.S., the use of pro-bono activities to develop networking is fundamental considering that multiple leaders of different firms participate and engage in activities that consequently offer an opportunity toRead MoreBusiness Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility, Integrity, And Integrity1318 Words   |  6 PagesAbstract The success of business now a days is apparent, but recently there is much concern in the business (and in society) literature and in the general press on whether business fulfils its social role responsibly. Business ethics, have been created in recent years as responses to an increasing sense of corporate wrong doing. This essay attempts to discuss what business ethics are for improvement of business behavior to the satisfaction of the â€Å"constituents† of business, i.e. the major stakeholders

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Fundamentals of Astrodynamics-Free-Samples-Myassignmenthelp.com

Questions: 1.Compare Qualitative low earth and Geo-stationary Orbits.2.Account for the Orbital decay of Satellites in low earth orbit.3.Identify data sources, gather, analyze and present information on the contribution of one of the following to the development of space exploration: Tsiolkovsky, Oberth, Goddard, Esnault-Pelterie, O'Neill or von Braun.4.Identify why the term 'g-forces' is used to explain the forces acting on an astronaut during launch.5.Discuss issues associated with safe re-entry into Earth's atmosphere and landing on the Earth's surface.6.Identify that there is an Optimum angle for safe re-entry for a manned spacecraft into Earth's atmosphere and the consequence of failing to achieve this angle.7.Discuss the Importance of Newton's law of universal Gravitation in understanding and calculating the motion of Satellites. Answers: 1.A low Earth orbit technically refers to any satellite that is less than 1500km in altitude and is usually approximately 300km from the Earth's surface. Low Earth Orbits have their orbital periods that last for about 960 minutes with each orbital velocity being approximately 8km/s. on the other hand, geostationary orbits, due to their orbital period of 24 hours, usually remain at a fixed position on the surface of the Earth[1]. They are relatively higher than the Low Earth Orbits in altitude with their altitude about 36000km but with a lower orbital velocity of about 3km/s. a geostationary orbit is considered as a special geo-synchronous orbit type. A geosynchronous orbit is any orbit that has an orbital period of 24 hours. It should, however, be noted that not all geo-synchronous orbits are geo-stationery since geo-stationary orbits must be equatorial i.e. traveling directly above the equator. In a nutshell, low Earth orbits have lower altitudes than geostationary; have higher orbital velocity and shorter orbital periods. 2.A satellite in a stable orbit around the Earth is found to be encompassing some amount of mechanical energy which is a combination of both its gravitational energy that is due to its altitude and kinetic energy resulting from its high speed of motion. This means the lower the altitude of the orbit of a satellite the lower the mechanical energy it contains. In the process of motion, satellites encounter frictional forces with the sparse outer fringes contained in the atmosphere. This friction culminates into the loss of energy thereby making the satellites no longer viable hence the satellite drops to a new altitude that corresponds to the resultant energy after energy losses due to friction. At the new level, the satellite tends to move at a higher speed than before even though there is additional kinetic energy that is extracted from the potential energy that was lost. It should be recalled that the lower the orbits, the higher the velocities of the orbits[2]. The process of orbital decay is a cyclic one as the new lower orbits of the satellites are found to be in relatively denser atmosphere thereby leading to even further friction thus energy loss. The process is a continuous one and the speed increases with time. 3.Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, who was a Russian scientist, came up with numerous ideas which were perceived to prophetic and very significant in space travel even though he was not making direct contributions to space travel at the time he lived. Among the key principles and ideas that he came up with included rocket propulsion, the use of liquid fuels not forgetting multi-stage rockets. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky illustrated the application of Newtons 3rd law of motion and the law of conservation of linear momentum would be applicable in rocket[3]. This is the principle that underlies the functioning of rockets and was important in understanding their operations. Secondly, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky came up with the idea that liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen could be used as rocket fuels in such a way that the thrust released by the rocket could be varied. These very fuels were deployed in the Saturn V rocket that was used in the powering of the Apollo missions to the moon and the application of liquid fuels was proved to be important in manned spaceflight as they are able to allow the control of g-forces that are experienced by astronauts unlike in the use of solid fuels 4.G-Forces are the forces that an astronaut experiences in terms of the gravitational strength of the Earth on the surface of the Earth. The force experienced by an astronaut while on the surface of the Earth is equivalent to 1G: w=mg where g=9.8 N/kg. Taking an example of a rocket which is accelerating upwards at 9.8m/s2 then it would be mean the astronaut would experience 2Gs net force which is twice the force it experienced due to the gravity of the Earth. An astronaut would experience 0Gs when in a free-fall. The term g-forces are normally used since it is easy to relate to and that it eases calculations in regard to the forces which can be withstood by the human body during launch. 5.As a result of the high temperatures and velocities experienced, re-entry becomes a complex procedure as well as the fine balance of the trajectory that is needed to safely land. In order to successfully land a space vehicle, the initial step is to slow down and then travel back down via the atmosphere, processes that have to occur simultaneously with the drag of the atmosphere hence slowing the vehicle as it descends[4]. Friction is created as a result of the high velocity of the vehicle thereby heating it up to more than 3000?C in relation to the flow of air. This leads to the need for a resistant shielding of very high temperature in most cases carbon or ceramic based is used as these can withstand such temperature thereby protecting the vehicle while in the descending process. 6.The optimum angle required for safe re-entry into the atmosphere lies between 5.2? and 7.2?. Any angle beyond this range would culminate into the upward friction become very great hence decelerating the craft at a very high speed thereby causing the craft to burn up and melt. A re-entry angle less than the provided range would make the aircraft bounce off the atmosphere making it return to space. In such a situation, the craft may not be having enough fuel to allow it make a second attempt thereby burning up[5]. 7.The velocity of the orbit must be known in order to launch a satellite. The centripetal force on to which a body is subjected to must be equivalent to the force exerted by gravity on the same body in the orbit. Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation is important in the comprehension and calculation of the motion of satellites since the law is needed in the quantification of the value of Fg used in derivation the velocity of the orbits. Newton's Law is also used in the derivation of Kepler's Law of Periods, an important tool in the extensive understanding of the motion of orbits. References Bate, Roger R. Fundamentals of Astrodynamics. New York: Courier Corporation, 2010. Curtis, Howard D. Orbital Mechanics: For Engineering Students. London: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2015. Davies, E. Brian. Why Beliefs Matter: Reflections on the Nature of Science. Chicago: Oxford University Press, 2010. Leondes, C. T. Advances in Control Systems: Theory and Applications. Chicago: Elsevier, 2014. Lissauer, Jack J. Fundamental Planetary Science: Physics, Chemistry, and Habitability. Paris: Cambridge University Press, 2013. Lowrie, William. Fundamentals of Geophysics. Paris: Cambridge University Press, 2015. Quarles, Billy. Three Body Dynamics and Its Applications to Exoplanets. Chicago: Springer, 2017. Rainey, Larry B. Space Modeling, and Simulation: Roles and Applications Throughout the System Life Cycle. Manchester: AIAA, 2014. Stevens, Brian L. Aircraft Control, and Simulation. Manchester: John Wiley Sons, 2016. Warren, Neville G. Excel HSC Physics. New York: Pascal Press, 2013. Bate, Roger R. Fundamentals of Astrodynamics. New York: Courier Corporation, 2010Curtis, Howard D. Orbital Mechanics: For Engineering Students. London: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2015. Davies, E. Brian. Why Beliefs Matter: Reflections on the Nature of Science. Chicago: Oxford University Press, 2010. Leondes, C. T. Advances in Control Systems: Theory and Applications. Chicago: Elsevier, 2014. Lissauer, Jack J. Fundamental Planetary Science: Physics, Chemistry, and Habitability. Paris: Cambridge University Press, 2013. Lowrie, William. Fundamentals of Geophysics. Paris: Cambridge University Press, 2015.Quarles, Billy. Three Body Dynamics and Its Applications to Exoplanets. Chicago: Springer, 2017. Rainey, Larry B. Space Modeling, and Simulation: Roles and Applications Throughout the System Life Cycle. Manchester: AIAA, 2014

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Malay civilisation free essay sample

1. Positive influences (skills and technology) During the times where there was no technology, there was no civilization. Material development is one of the definitions of civilization. Without technology, new material, building and etc cannot be constructed or produced. This leads to no civilization being born. Example: During the stone age, there were no clothes for human beings to wear. They only moved around being nude. But once the technology of making clothes and dresses were found, people starting wearing clothes and they started being civilized. 2. Religious boost Cultural development too defines civilization. Religion is one of the mediums which introduced culture to the world. A specific religion has its own taboos, and when these taboos were strongly followed for generations, thus culture was born. Example: Islam strong opposes premarital sex. So as a solution, ‘nikah’ or marriage is introduced to world. Marriage then became not only an Islamic culture but also a world culture. We will write a custom essay sample on Malay civilisation or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Civilisation is born. AL-TAWAZUN Explaination: Balance and integrated state between spiritual and physical (material) of the human life. Example: Struggle for properties for life, and at the same time pay the zakat and give sedekah. Thabat wa Murunah  Explaination: To be fixed and firm in the principles and flexible in the practice. Example: Solat is compulsory for Muslims. But for those Muslims who are sick or not feeling well, they are allowed to complete their solat in a sitting or lying down position with their capability. Inqilabiyyah Explaination: Islam has to be strictly practiced in and every situations. Islam should be differentiated from jahiliyyah and should not be mixed up with the jahiliyyah system. Example: During the jahiliyyah times, baby girls are killed once they are  born because baby girls are considered a shame to the family. But in Islam, baby girls are not killed like in jahiliyyah times, but cared and nurtured just as they do to a baby boy.